Dysuria is best described as a feeling of pain, discomfort, or burning when urinating. It is more common in women than in men. When it presents in men, it is more common in older men than younger men.
Some of the more common causes of painful urination include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Infections in the urinary tract are one of the leading causes of painful urination. Infections can occur in any part of the urinary tract, including the kidneys,
ureters (tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder), bladder and urethra (tube from the bladder that carries urine out of the body). Urinary tract infections are most often caused by bacteria that get into the urinary tract through the urethra. Factors that can increase your chance of developing a UTI include:
– Being a woman
– Diabetes
– Advanced age
– Enlarged prostate
– Kidney stones
– Pregnancy
– Having a urinary catheter in place.

Besides painful urination, other symptoms of urinary tract infection include:
– Fever
– Foul or stronger smelling urine
– Cloudy or bloody urine
– Increased urinary frequency or urge to urinate
– Flank pain.

2. Vaginal Infection: Sometimes painful urination can be related to a vaginal infection, such as a yeast infection. With vaginal infections, there may also be changes in vaginal discharge and odor.

3. Sexually transmitted infections: These can also cause painful urination and include
– Genital herpes infection
– Chlamydia infection
– Gonorrhea infection.
Besides painful urination, these sexually transmitted infections can also cause symptoms such as:
– Genital itching
– Burning sensations around the genital
– Genital blisters or sores for genital herpes
– Abnormal vaginal discharge in women or urethra discharge in men.
4. Inflammation and irritation around the genitals: A range of problems can lead to inflammation or irritation of the urinary tract or genital area, leading to the symptom of painful urination. Besides infections, other possible causes of genital irritation and inflammation include stones in the urinary tract, irritation of the urethra from sexual activity, interstitial cystitis (bladder inflammation), vaginal changes related to vaginal sensitivity or irritation related to use of scented soaps or bubble bath, toilet paper, or other products such as douches or spermicides, side effects from certain medications, supplements, and treatments, tumor in the urinary tract.

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